Abiogenesis is studied through a combination of paleontology, chemistry, and extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms, and aims to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life on Earth.
as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today.
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The structure of the microbes was noted to be similar to bacteria found near hydrothermal vents in the modern era, and provided support for the hypothesis that abiogenesis began near hydrothermal vents.
In other parts of the Isua supracrustal belt, graphite inclusions trapped within garnet crystals are connected to the other elements of life: oxygen, nitrogen, and possibly phosphorus in the form of phosphate, providing further evidence for life 3.7 billion years ago.
The most commonly accepted location of the root of the tree of life is between a monophyletic domain Bacteria and a clade formed by Archaea and Eukaryota of what is referred to as the "traditional tree of life" based on several molecular studies starting with C. More recently Peter Ward has established an alternative view which is rooted in abiotic RNA synthesis which becomes enclosed within a capsule and then creates RNA ribozyme replicates.
It is proposed that this then bifurcates between Dominion Ribosa (hypothetical Domain Ribosa or RNA life), and after the loss of ribozymes RNA viruses as Domain Viorea, and Dominion Terroa, which after creating a large cell within a lipid wall, creating DNA the 20 based amino acids and the triplet code, is established as the last universal common ancestor or LUCA, of earlier phylogenic trees.
The earliest physical evidence so far found consists of microfossils in the Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt of Northern Quebec, in "banded iron formation" rocks at least 3.77 billion and possibly 4.28 billion years old.
This finding suggested that there was almost instant development of life after oceans were formed.During its formation, the Earth lost a significant part of its initial mass, with a nucleus of the heavier rocky elements of the protoplanetary disk remaining.According to later models, suggested by study of ancient minerals, the atmosphere in the late Hadean period consisted largely of water vapour, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and sulfur compounds.Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and is largely based upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA).Any successful theory of abiogenesis must explain the origins and interactions of these classes of molecules.The classic Miller–Urey experiment and similar research demonstrated that most amino acids, the basic chemical constituents of the proteins used in all living organisms, can be synthesized from inorganic compounds under conditions intended to replicate those of the early Earth.