"Children also talked at lot about the pressure to conform to gender norms and stereotypes."As one girl told me, 'I feel pushed to be a girl'.If you're a man over a certain age, the likelihood is that you've got a few wobbly bits starting to appear in unwanted places.
Power: By buttoning up, former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, left, was suppressing her femininity fearing it was a weakness and the diminutive Kim Kardashian, right, wears her trademark high heels Women who button up their clothes are actually telling their boss that ‘femininity means weakness, not power’, while high heels can make women appear less intelligent but also inspire confidence by making the wearer as tall as their male colleagues.
Dr Baumgartner said: ‘All of our behaviours, from the food we eat to the men we date, are motivated by internal factors.
One girl said: "Sometimes we do try and look older...
when you’re older you have more independence." Similarly, some boys as young as 11 in the study said they had started weight training to gain a six pack - not to look good - but to protect themselves or their friends from being beaten up.
Two, they make their wearers look like medieval peasants. Three, no one will respect you if you wear these shoes. Unless you're allergic to the real thing or are a vegan, you should not be wearing pleather. Donning a chestnut brown monk strap with a pair of slim bottle green trousers, another. Avoid synthetics at all cost, as they'll bring a sheen to the surface of the fabric over time, or anything uncomfortable against the skin – because you just won't want to wear it. Clever accessorising is key to the success of any outfit.
The most common things to be made from this fabric are knock-off man bags and the shoes from point two. Allowing your un-hemmed, loosely flowing suit trousers to puddle over the tops over your shoes like molten rubber, on the other hand, is not one. A beautiful suit is all well and good, but wear it with the wrong shoes, tie or pocket square and you'll ruin it irreparably. Wearing overly long, flappy jeans which have hems that get caught under your heels will not only make you look like Avril Lavigne circa 2002, but wearing these jeans will also result in the hems becoming frayed and giant patches of empty space where denim should be. Just because your pants (on the whole) remain hidden under your clothes, does not give you free reign to don the saggy boxer shorts you got in your stocking back in 1992. One, always assume that you're going to get lucky (even if you definitely won't).
Rather, invest in properly tailored pieces that will make the best of your assets. Cheap shoes with plastic soles and pointy toes that turn up at the end do not look stylish. So awful are these shoes that even their ubiquity hasn't diluted their utter ridiculousness. There are many ways to make a statement with your clothes. Equally, don't be fooled into thinking you look like John Travolta in Saturday Night Fever: you're more likely to be accused of nicking Wayne Rooney's "pulling shirt".
One, they won't last longer than a few weeks before the soles burn through (keep a nostril out for the smell of burning rubber, if you don't feel the crunch of tarmac on your feet first). Pleather is a cheap substitute for leather, most commonly made from polyurethane. Wearing a nice patterned shirt with a smartly cut blue suit is one. Steve Mc Queen had his Persols, Keith Richards has his scarves and Bryan Ferry has his bow tie.
"Children are actively learning everyday about the contradictory and often confusing ways in which gender and sexuality shape who they are, how they feel in their bodies, what they can do, where they can go, how they relate to others and how others relate to them," she said.
However, the majority of children also spoke of the playground advantages of being in a relationship, such as the enhanced "social status and popularity" being a boyfriend or girlfriend could bring - as well as the social exclusion incurred by not being part of the boyfriend/ girlfriend culture.
Prof Renold said: "When we connect the role of boyfriend to social status, social inclusion and proof of a boys’ masculinity, we can perhaps begin to make some sense of how to intervene in these situations – and again it would involve directly addressing constraining gender norms for boys and girls." She added that her research was set up to allow children’s own views to take priority - hence personal interviews with children rather than quantitative research - rather than adults assuming they knew the pressures that children were under.